Obesity is a growing concern worldwide, with significant implications for health and wellbeing. Fitness professionals play a crucial role in supporting clients on their weight loss journey, particularly those with morbid obesity and at high risk of developing diabetes. A recent study sheds light on the effectiveness of different dietary approaches in managing obesity, comparing the impacts of low-carbohydrate and Mediterranean diets on weight loss, glucose metabolism, insulin kinetics, and β-cell function. This article aims to translate these findings into actionable strategies for fitness professionals, including a simple nutrition and exercise plan based on the research.

Study Overview

The study titled “Effects of Low-Carbohydrate versus Mediterranean Diets on Weight Loss, Glucose Metabolism, Insulin Kinetics and β-Cell Function in Morbidly Obese Individuals” provides valuable insights into how different diets can influence weight loss and metabolic health in obese individuals. Published on April 1, 2021, by researchers D. Tricò, D. Moriconi, and colleagues, the study highlights the potential benefits of both dietary approaches but emphasises the need for personalised nutrition plans tailored to individual health goals and conditions.

Key Findings and Implications

The study found that both low-carbohydrate and Mediterranean diets could be effective in promoting weight loss and improving insulin resistance and fasting hyperinsulinemia. However, the low-carbohydrate diet resulted in a greater percentage of weight loss in the short term. These findings suggest that while both diets can be part of an effective weight management strategy, the choice between them should consider the individual’s health status, dietary preferences, and risk factors.

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Nutrition Plan Recommendations

  • Low-Carbohydrate Diet: Focus on reducing carbohydrate intake, emphasising high-quality proteins, healthy fats, and low-carb vegetables. This diet may be suitable for clients looking for quick initial weight loss and those with higher glucose levels.
  • Mediterranean Diet: Emphasise fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and olive oil, with moderate consumption of fish and poultry. This diet is rich in fibre and healthy fats, promoting long-term heart health and sustainable weight management.

Exercise Plan Recommendations

  • Cardiovascular Exercise: Aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity or 75 minutes of high-intensity cardiovascular exercise per week. Activities can include brisk walking, cycling, swimming, or jogging.
  • Strength Training: Incorporate strength training exercises for all major muscle groups at least two days a week. This can include bodyweight exercises, free weights, or resistance bands.
  • Flexibility and Balance: Include flexibility and balance exercises, such as yoga or Pilates, to improve overall mobility and reduce the risk of injury.

The study by Tricò et al. provides a foundation for fitness professionals to develop personalised, evidence-based weight loss programmes for clients with obesity. By understanding the nuances of different dietary approaches and combining them with a structured exercise plan, professionals can support their clients in achieving sustainable weight loss and improved metabolic health.

By integrating these dietary and exercise strategies, fitness professionals can offer comprehensive support to clients, helping them navigate the challenges of weight loss with confidence and scientific backing.


Tricò, D., Moriconi, D., Berta, R., Baldi, S., Quiñones-Galvan, A., Guiducci, L., Taddei, S., Mari, A., & Nannipieri, M. (2021). Effects of Low-Carbohydrate versus Mediterranean Diets on Weight Loss, Glucose Metabolism, Insulin Kinetics and β-Cell Function in Morbidly Obese Individuals. Nutrients. Click here to review the full research article

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