In the realm of sports and athletics, mental toughness (MT) has emerged as a critical factor influencing an athlete’s success and performance. The understanding, measurement, and cultivation of mental toughness have garnered significant attention from researchers, practitioners, and coaches. While athletes themselves play a central role in developing their mental toughness, another key stakeholder in this process is the coach. In particular, strength and conditioning coaches hold a unique position due to their extensive interaction with athletes and clients during training and conditioning. This article explores the findings of a study titled “Conceptualising, measuring, and training mental toughness in sport: Perspectives of master strength and conditioning coaches“, published in the Journal for the Study of Sports and Athletes in Education (Stamatis et al. 2023) and discusses its implications for fitness professionals aiming to enhance athletes’ mental toughness through strength and conditioning training.

Coaches’ Role in Mental Toughness

Coaches have evolved beyond mere fitness instructors to become multifaceted professionals who shape athletes’ physical, technical, and psychological development. This transformation underscores the coach’s vital role in fostering mental toughness. The study emphasises that a coach’s position as a performer, balancing a multitude of stakeholders’ interests, makes them not only influencers of athletes’ mental toughness but also recipients of its benefits.

Strength and Conditioning Coaches (SCCs) as Influential Figures

Strength and conditioning coaches play an indispensable role in clients’ training routines, impacting both their physical and psychological growth. Remarkably, despite their pivotal role, research investigating the mental toughness perspectives of SCCs has been limited. Given that SCCs spend considerable time with clients, their insights into mental toughness are invaluable. Within the realm of SCCs, the study particularly focuses on strength and conditioning coaches who are distinguished professionals with a wealth of experience and expertise.

Understanding the Study

The study adopts a mixed-method design to explore SCCs’ perspectives on three essential aspects of mental toughness: conceptualisation, measurement, and training. Results indicate that while SCCs recognise the significance of mental toughness in sports, their understanding of its conceptualisation is diverse. This diversity of views highlights the complexity of defining mental toughness, a psychological construct that holds immense importance despite its ambiguity.

Training Approaches

Mental Toughness in Strength & Conditioning Training

SCCs often rely on anecdotal evidence when implementing training protocols to enhance mental toughness. However, the study points out that the effectiveness of these protocols is rarely objectively assessed using psychometrically-sound instruments. This reliance on subjective approaches underscores the need for evidence-based training protocols that can yield consistent and measurable results.

Challenges and Recommendations

The study’s findings indicate that while SCCs value mental toughness, there is a knowledge gap in terms of its precise definition, measurement, and training. This gap can hinder the effectiveness of training initiatives and the overall mental wellbeing of athletes. To address these challenges, the study suggests a few recommendations:

  1. Enhance Conceptual Clarity: There is a clear need to develop a more precise and widely accepted definition of mental toughness. Efforts from academic institutions, professional organisations, and governing bodies can promote consensus in the field.
  2. Educational Opportunities: Encourage fitness professionals, particularly SCCs, to engage in educational opportunities related to sports psychology. Providing resources and training in mental toughness development can empower coaches to better support athletes’ psychological growth.
  3. Evidence-Based Training: Promote the adoption of evidence-based training protocols for mental toughness. This involves incorporating psychometrically-sound instruments to measure the effectiveness of training programmes and making adjustments based on data-driven insights.

The study underscores the influential role of SCCs in shaping clients’ mental toughness through training. While mental toughness remains a somewhat ambiguous concept, its importance cannot be overstated. Fitness professionals and coaches should strive for a clearer conceptualisation of mental toughness, employ evidence-based training approaches, and seek continuous education to support athletes’ holistic development. By embracing these recommendations, the fitness community can contribute significantly to the mental resilience and performance excellence of athletes across various sports.


  1. Andreas Stamatis, Grant B. Morgan, Richard G. Cowden & Panagiotis Koutakis (2023) Conceptualising, measuring, and training mental toughness in sport: Perspectives of master strength and conditioning coaches, Journal for the Study of Sports and Athletes in Education, 17:1, 1-28, DOI: Click here to review the full research article

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